TERMINOLOGY

GENERAL TERMS

Karate: Empty Hands
Karate Do:The Way of Katate
Karateka: Practitioner of Karate
Dojo: School or training room
Sensei: Teacher
Sempai: Senior
Kohai: Junior
Renshi: Entry Level Master
Shihan: Master Instructor
Kyu: Rank
Gi: Uniform
Obi: Belt
Hai: Yes
Iie: No
Osu: “I understand and will try my best.”
Also used to show respect, enthusiasm.
Do not use outside of the dojo!
Do: Way
Budo: Way of combat
Zanshin: Poise and control
Kime: Focus
Kihon: Fundamentals/Basics
Kiai: Spirit shout/focus of spiritual energy
Kata: Practice form
Embusen: Floor pattern/lines of a kata
Maai: Distance
Bunkai: Application (interpretation) of kata techniques
Kumite: Sparring/fighting
Ippon kumite: One-step sparring
Yakusoku kumite: “Promise” premeditated sparring
Gohon kumite: Five-step sparring
Jiyyu kumite: Free sparring
Dachi: Stance
Tsuki (Zuki): Punch
Uchi: Strike
Uke: Block
Rei: Bow
Waza: Technique
Geri: Kick
Ashi-barai: Foot sweep
Kamae: Posture
Yori-ashi: Sliding the feet
Tai-sabaki: Body shifting
Shotokan: “House of Shoto”; “Pine Sea”; pen name of Funakoshi.
Mokuso: Meditate/Gather Your Thoughts
Dozo: Please
Domo Arigato Gozaimashita: “Thank-you very much”
Onegai Shimasu: “I welcome you to train with me”
Literally: ” I make a request.” Said to one’s partner when initiating practice.
MAJOR CONCEPTS
Zanshin: Awareness; Continuing mind/heart – connotes “following through” a technique while maintaining awareness
Sen: Initiative
Sen no sen: Seizing the initiative earlier; attacking at the same moment your opponent attacks.
Go no sen: Seizing the initiative later; Allowing your opponent to attack first so as to open up target for counter-attacks.
Sen sen no sen: Seizing the opponent’s sen no sen; Attacking before your opponent attacks-a preemptive attack.
Ikken Hissatsu: “To kill with one blow”
Karate ni sente nashi: Karate does not include the first move.
Karate wa sente nari: Karate is the first move.
Shorin (kata): Quick movement, emphasizing speed
Shorei (kata): Slow, strong movement, emphasizing strength
Sun-dome: Stopping a technique just prior to contact (three centimeters)
COMMANDS
Narande: Line up
Seiretsu: Line up by rank
Yoi: Ready
Yame: Stop
Yasume: Relax (or ready position)
Sensei ni: Face towards the teacher
Otaigai ni: Face towards each other
Shomen ni: Face towards the front
Rei: Bow
Seiza: Meditation position-kneeling
Age-te: Hands up (cover position)
Mawatte: Turn around
Hajime: Begin
Naore: Return to Shizen-tai
DIRECTIONS
Mae: Front
Yoko: Side
Ushiro: Back
Tate: Vertical
Mawashi: Round
Jodan: Head high level
Chudan: Mid-high level
Gedan: Low level; Down
Migi: Right
Hidari: Left
Tobi: Jump
Gyaku: Reverse
Age: Rising
Uchi: Inner
Soto: Outer
Otoshi: Dropping
Sokumen: Side
DACHI WAZA (STANCES)
Kamae:Posture (Yoi)
Heisoku dachi: Formal Attention Stance (Yoi)
Zenkutsu dachi: Front Stance
Kokutsu dachi: Back Stance
Kiba dachi: Straddle Stance
Fudo dachi: Fighting Stance
Musubi dachi: Informal Attention Stance (feet in a ‘V”)
Hachiji dachi: Open-legged Stance (Yoi)
Shizen-tai dachi: Natural Stance
Neko-ashi dachi:Cat Stance
Renoji dachi: “L” Stance
Kosa dachi: Cross-legged Stance
Hangetsu dachi: Wide Hour-glass Stance
Migi Ashi Orishiku: Right Leg Kneeling
Hidari Ashi Orishiku: Left Leg Kneeling
UKE WAZA (BLOCKS)
Age uke: Rising block
Gedan uke: Down block
Soto ude uke: Outside forearm block
Uchi ude uke: Inside forearm block
Shuto uke: Knife block
Morote uke: Augmented block
Kakiwaki uke: Reverse wedge block (Heian 4)
Juji uke: X block
Kosa uke: Cross block (Uchi/gedan uke-Heian 3)
Manji uke: Hi/low block (Heian 5)
Tate shuto uke: Vertical knife-hand block (Heian 3)
Haishu uke: Back-hand block (Heian 5)
Empi uke (or Hiji uke): Elbow block (Heian 3)
Osae uke: Pressing block (Heian 2, 3)
Otoshi uke: Dropping or falling block (Heian 2, 3)
Nagashi Uke: Sweeping block (Tekki, Jion)
Haiwan Nagashi Uke: Sweeping back-arm block
Te Nagashi Uke: Sweeping hand block (parry) (Heian 5)
Sukui Uke: Scooping block (Bassai, Chinte)
Sokumen Awase Uke: Side combined block (Bassai-Dai)
Tsukami Uke: Grasping block (Bassai-Dai, Jion)
Awase Shuto Age Uke: Combined rising knife-hand block (Kanku-Dai)
Ryowan Uchi Uke: Double inside block( Jion, Bassai-Sho)
Seiryuto Uke: Ox-Jaw block
GERI WAZA (KICKS)

  • Mae geri keage: Front snap kick

Mae geri kekomi: Front thrust kick
Yoko geri keage: Side snap kick
Yoko geri kekomi: Side thrust kick
Mawashi geri: Round kick
Ushiro geri: Back thrust kick
Fumikomi geri: Stomping kick (Heian 3, 5)
Uchi mikazuki geri: Inside crescent kick
Soto mikazuki geri: Outside crescent kick
Tobi geri: Flying kick
Name ashi geri: Returning wave kick (Tekki 1)
Hiza geri: Knee kick/strike
Nidan geri: Double kick (Kanku-Dai)
TSUKI WAZA (PUNCHES)
Oi tsuki: Lunge punch
Gyaku tsuki: Reverse punch
Kizami tsuki: Jab
Choku tsuki: Straight punch
Kagi tsuki: Hook punch
Oi-gyaku tsuki: Lunging reverse punch
Ura tsuki: Close punch
Morote tsuki: Parallel punch
Ren tsuki: Double punch
San tsuki: Triple punch
Age tsuki: Rising punch
Gedan tsuki: Downward punch
Yama tsuki: Wide “U” punch
Awase tsuki: “U” punch
Otoshi tsuki: Dropping punch (Empi)
Ippon Ken tsuki: One-knuckle fist punch (Hangetsu)
UCHI WAZA (Strikes)
Tettsui Hammer-fist strike
Kumade Uchi: Bear Claw Strike
Uraken Uchi: Backfist Strike
Hiraken Uchi: Foreknuckle Strike
Teisho Uchi: Palm Heel Strike
Ippon Nukite Uchi: Single Finger Strike
Nihon Nukite Uchi: Two Finger Strike (Fork)
Shuto Uchi: Knife Hand Strike
Soto Shuto Uchi: Outside Knife Hand Strike
Uchi Shuto Uchi: Inside Knife Hand Strike
Shihon Nukite Uchi: Spear Hand Strike
Gyaku Haito Uchi:Reverse Backfist Strike
Haito Uchi: Backfist Strike
Empi Uchi: Elbow Strike
Mawashi Empi Uchi: Round Elbow Strike
Mae Empi Uchi: Front Elbow Strike
Otoshi Empi Uchi: Downward Elbow Strike
Ushiro Empi Uchi: Back Elbow Strike
Yoko Empi Uchi: Side Elbow Strike
Yoko Mawashi Empi Uchi: Side Roundhouse Elbow Strike
Tate Empi Uchi: Upward Elbow Strike
Hiza Age Ate: Rising Knee Strike
Washide Uchi: Eagle Beak Strike
Koko Uchi: Tiger Mouth Strike
Haishu Uchi: Back Hand Strike
KATA (Forms)

  • Taikyoku: First Cause
  • Ten-No-Kata: Kata of the Universe

Heian: Peaceful mind
Tekki: Iron Knight
Bassai: Storm the Fortress
Sho: Lesser, small
Dai: Greater, big
Jion: Temple Ground
Jiin: Temple Sound
Kanku: To look at the sky
Hangetsu: Crescent or Half moon
Empi: Flying Swallow
Chinte: Extraordinary Hands
Jitte: Ten Hands
Gankaku: Crane on a rock
Sochin: To keep the peace; Grand Suppression
Nijushiho: Twenty-four steps
Shorei Kata: Light and quick; emphasizing agility and speed
Shorin Kata: Slow, hard, and strong; emphasizing muscles and strength
BODY PARTS
Ken: Fist
Ippon Ken: Single-point index-finger Fist
Tate Ken: Vertical Fist
Te: Hand
Kaishu: Open hand
Tekubi: Wrist
Teisho: Palm heel
Ude: Forearm
Empi (also Hiji): Elbow
Ashi: Leg
Ashikubi: Ankle
Hiza (also Hitsui): Knee
Ensho: Back of the heel
Heisoku: Top (instep) of the foot
Teisoku: Bottom of the foot
Kakato: Heel of the foot
Koshi: Ball of the foot
Sokuto: Outer edge (knife) of the foot
Tsumasaki: Toe tips
Atama: Head
Wan: Arm
Naiwan: Back of Arm
Kata: Shoulder
Jiku Ashi: Pivot leg
Jodan: Head level
Chudan: Mid-level
Gedan: Lower level
COUNTING
Ichi: One
Ni: Two
San: Three
Shi: Four
Go: Five
Roku: Six
Shichi: Seven
Hachi: Eight
Ku: Nine
Ju: Ten
NiJu: Twenty
NiJu-Go: Twenty-five
Hyaku: One Hundred
Ippon: First
Yon: Fourth
Gohon: Fifth
COLORS
Shiro: White
Ki: Yellow
Aoi: Blue
Midori: Green
Murasaki: Purple
Cha: Brown
Kuro: Black
Aka: Red
WEAPONS (Kobujutsu Training)
Bo: Long staff
Jo: Short staff
Sai: forked knife (Jitte)
Nunchaku: Thrasher (two sticks joined by a chain)
Kama: Sickles
Tonfa: Batons
Shinai: Bamboo sword
Bokken: Wooden sword